The Oscilloscope

The Oscilloscope   An oscilloscope is basically a voltmeter that shows you how voltage varies with time... it plots a voltage against time graph on the screen. It is connected in parallel to the component you are looking at (like a voltmeter).   Instead of getting a digital readout (as on a multimeter) it gives you a graph. The y-axis is voltage (so you can see how many volts are across the component) Read More


Interference When two waves meet while they travelling through the same medium we observe a 'merging of the two' within the appearance of the medium. The two waves do not 'bounce off each other' upon meeting (like two balls would) they pass through each other, superpositioning upon each other to encompass the displacement of particles of the medium by both waveforms. This is called wave interference. Constructive interf Read More

Electromagnetic Spectrum of Light

 Electromagnetic Spectrum of Light   Electromagnetic radiations are disturbances in an electric field.  They travel as waves and move energy from one place to another.  They can all travel through a vacuum and do so at the same speed.  The waves cover a continuous range of wavelengths called the electromagnetic spectrum. The uses and hazards of the radiations in different parts of the electromagnetic spect Read More

Damping & Resonance

Damping Any completely isolated system exhibiting simple harmonic motion will carry on swinging/vibrating for ever! It conserves mechanical energy. There will be continuous interchange of kinetic to potential energy and back again.   For example,  In a spring-mass system, the the energy conversion is between kinetic energy and the potential energy stored in a stretched/compressed spring.   In a pendulum, the ener Read More


Coherence The coherence of that wave is a measure of the correlation that exists between the phases of the wave measured at different points, and that will depend upon the characteristics of the source of the wave.    Let's look at a simple 'thought experiment' example. Imagine a calm water surface with two tiny rubber ducks floating on the surface a few inches apart.  Now imagine a single stick moved Read More

Analogue vs digital signals

Analogue vs digital signals  Analogue signals contain all the information as a continuously varying wave - such as on an oscilloscope screen when you speak into a microphone connected to it. Analogue means that the signal can take on any value (within the limits set by the recording equipment and the transmitter). Analogue means that the original information is retransmitted to the receiver/listener without any manipulation.  Read More

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