Languages in the 8th Schedule of the Indian Constitution

Languages in the 8th Schedule of the Indian Constitution As per Indian Constitution official language of the Government of India is Hindi written in the Devanagari script, as well as English. States specify their own official language(s) through legislation. The section of the Constitution of India dealing with official languages therefore includes detailed provisions which deal not just with the languages used for the official purposes of Read More

22 Parts, 395 Articles and Schedules of the Indian Constitution

22 Parts, 395 Articles and Schedules of the Indian Constitution   PARTS & ARTICLES SUBJECT Part I : Article - 1 to 4 1. Name and territory of the union 2. Admission or establishment of new States. 2A. [Repealed] 3. Formation of new States and alteration of areas, boundaries or names of existing States. 4. Laws made under artic Read More

List of Important Amendments to the Constitution of India

List of Important Amendments to the Constitution of India 1st Amendment, 1951: Provide for reasonable restriction on freedom of speech. Ninth Schedule was inserted. 7th Amendment, 1956: Reorganization of states on linguistic basis and introduction of Union Territories. Read More

Recognised National Political Parties in India

Recognised National Political Parties in India   India has a multi-party system with recognition accorded to national and state level parties. The status is reviewed periodically by the Election Commission of India. Other political parties that wish to contest local, state or national elections are required to be registered by the Election Commission of India (ECI). Registered parties are upgraded as recognized national or state l Read More

Presidents, Vice-Presidents and Prime Ministers of India

Presidents, Vice-Presidents and Prime Ministers of India   PRESIDENTS OF INDIA TENURE Dr. Rajendra Prasad (1884-1963) 26 January 1950 to 13 May 1962 Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan (1888-1975) 13 May 1962 TO 13 May 1967 Dr. Zakir Husain (1897-19 Read More

Council of Ministers

Council of Ministers    The duties of the Prime Minister for furnishing information to the President-   Constitution of Council of Ministers: 1. As per provisions in the Constitution, there must be a Council of Ministers with the Prime Minister as the head to aid and advice the President who shall in the exercise of his functions, act in accordance with such advice. Read More

Advocate General of State

Advocate General of State   Appointment and Tenure: 1. The Governor of each State appoints a person who is qualified to be appointed as a Judge of a High Court to be the Advocate General of the State. 2. The Advocate General of State holds office during the pleasure of the Governor. Powers, privileges and functions: The Advocate G Read More

Law Making in Parliament

Law Making in Parliament The Parliament is basically Legislature, i.e., a law making body. Therefore ,any proposed law is introduced in the Parliament as a Bill. After the bill is passed by the Parliament and receives the Presidential assent, it becomes a law.   There are two kinds of bills in the Parliament:- Ordinary bill and Money bill.   Ordinary Bills: Each member of the Parliament can int Read More

Emergency Provisions

Emergency Provisions  While the Constitution of India was being drafted, India was going through a period of stress and strain because of partition, communal riots and the problem of princely states merger including Kashmir. Therefore, the Constitution-makers gave the Central Government the necessary authority, to ensure proper redressal of issue in case of unusual circumstances of law and order, when the security and stability of the Read More

Basic Structure of Indian Constitution

Basic Structure of Indian Constitution The basic structure doctrine is not mentioned in the constitution, yet it has been developed over the years.   There are three critical milestones in Indian constitution’s path to achieve the basic structure doctrine: 1. In the case of Sajjan Singh in 1965 , SC for the first time used the phrase `basic feature’ of the Constitution to argue that there are certain features o Read More

Functions of Parliament

Functions of Parliament The functions and powers of the Union Parliament can be divided into legislative, executive, financial and other catagories.   Legislative Functions: Primarily the Parliament is a law-making body. And the constitution has divided the subjects over which Parliament can make laws. In Part XI of the Constitution, there are three lists mentioned, namely – Union List, State List and the Concurrent Read More

Chief Minister of the State

Chief Minister of the State  It is mentioned in the Constitution of India that, each State shall have a Council of Ministers to aid and advise the Governor in the exercise of his functions. And the Chief Minister serves as the head of the government in the State. Therefore, the Council of Ministers along with the Chief Minister as its head, exercises real authority in the State Government.   Formation of the Council of Mi Read More

Indian Federal System

Indian Federal System Governments have been classified into Unitary and Federal based on distribution of power between national and regional governments. In a federal set up there is a two tier of Government with well assigned powers and functions. In this system the central government and the governments of the region act within a well defined sphere, co-ordinate and at the same time act independently. The federal polity, in other words, Read More

Sessions of Parliament

Sessions of Parliament Indian Parliament has three broad parts, namely – The President, Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha. The time period during which the Parliament meets to conduct its procedures and business is known as a session. The sessions of Parliament are summoned and prorogued (prorogation puts an end to the session of a house) upon at the discretion of the President based on advice of the council of ministers, headed by the p Read More

Citizenship in India

Citizenship in India The constitution of India gives ‘Single Citizenship” for all its citizens India. This implies that there is no disparate domicile for a state. Provisions for citizenship are mentioned in Article 5 to 11 in Part II of the Constitution. Individuals who are not Indian Citizens are onsideref Aliens. Aliens do not enjoy rights mentioned in Article 15,16,19,29,30 of the Constitution.   Indian Cit Read More

Gram Nyayalayas

Gram Nyayalayas  The Gram Nyayalayas Act, 2008, mandates establishment of village courts to provide easy access to justice for people and reduce the case burden on the court system. This act requires the State Governments to establish Gram Nyayalayas with consultation of their respective High Courts. Recently, the Union Law & Justice Minister has mentioned that state-wise progress for setting up of Gram Nyayalayas has not been Read More

Union Public Service Commission (UPSC)

Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) The UPSC is basically the central recruiting agency in India, which is an independent,constitutional body. The Indian Constitution mentions about the provisions  for the composition, appointment, removal, powers and functions of the Union Public Service Commission from Article 315 to Article 323 in Part XIV. Under the Article 315 of the Indian Constitution, the Union Public Service Commission Read More

Finance Commission

Finance Commission It is mentioned under the Article 280 of the Constitution, that the President shall constitute a Finance Commission every five years consisting of a chairman and four other members. The President appoints the Commission members based on the qualifications set by the Parliament for the appointment of members and the Chairman of the Finance CommissionFINANCE COMMISSION   Composition of the Finance Commissi Read More

भारतीय संविधान की धारा : सामान्य ज्ञान प्रश्नोत्तरी

भारतीय संविधान की धारा : सामान्य ज्ञान प्रश्नोत्तरी   ● भारतीय संविधान में कुल कितने अनुच्छेद हैं— 444  ● भारतीय संविधान के किस अनुच्छेद में यह लिखा है कि भारत राज् Read More

Directive Principles of State Policy

Directive Principles of State Policy Directive Principles of State Policy are  instructions/guidelines to the governments at the center as well as states. Though these principles are non-justiciable, they are fundamental in the governance of the country. The idea of Directive Principles of State Policy has been taken from the Irish Constitution. They were incorporated in our Constitution in order to provide economic justice an Read More

Salient Features of Indian Constitution

Salient Features of Indian Constitution India has a parliamentary democracy. There is a Council of Ministers headed by the Prime Minister who enjoys the real powers and is responsible to the Parliament,which is elected by the people by universal adult franchise. The Indian Constitution provides for Fundamental Rights which are justiciable. There is a mention of the Fundamental Duties which have been added to the Constitution later. India j Read More


विधानपरिषद्   1. राज्य विधानमंडल में कितने सदन होते हैं ? ►-दो—1. विधानसभा 2. विधानपरिषद्   2. राज्य विधानमंडल का उच्च सदन कौन होता है ? ►-विधानपरिषद्   3. संसद कि Read More


NEW STATES IN INDIA CREATED AFTER 1950 Following are the new states in India created after 1950.      Andhra Pradesh Created by the State of Andhra Pradesh Act 1953 by carving our some areas from the State of Chennai     Gujarat and Maharashtra The State of Mumbai was divided into two States i.e. Maharashtra and Gujarat by Read More


PREAMBLE TO THE CONSTITUTION The Indian Constitution starts with the preamble which outlines the main objectives of the Constitution. It reads: " WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN, SOCIALIST, SECULAR, DEMOCRATIC, REPUBLIC and to secure all its citizens." JUSTICE, social economic and political. LIBERTY, of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship. EQUALITY, Read More


HIGH COURT : The total number of High Courts in the country are 24, by the central government. Because, the Centre has constituted three new high courts in the north-eastern states – Tripura, Manipur and Meghalaya. They may soon have their own high court. Each state has a High Court. It is the highest judicial organ of the state. However, there cab we a common high Court like Punjab, Haryana & Union territory of Chandigarh. P Read More

States & Union Territories

States & Union Territories India, a union of states, is a Sovereign, Secular, Democratic Republic with a Parliamentary system of Government.The President is the constitutional head of Executive of the Union. In the states, the Governor, as the representative of the President, is the head of Executive. The system of government in states closely resembles that of the Union. There are 29 states and 7 Union territories in the country. Unio Read More

Legislative Assembly (Vidhan Sabha)

Legislative Assembly (Vidhan Sabha)  The Vidhan Sabha or the Legislative Assembly is the lower house of the state legislature in the different states and for the two of the union territories, Delhi and Pondicherry.Members of a Vidhan Sabha are direct representatives of the people of the particular state as they are directly elected by the adult suffrage.Each Vidhan Sabha is formed for a five year term after which all seats are up for Read More

Legislative Council (Vidhan Parishad)

Legislative Council (Vidhan Parishad)   The Legislative Council is a permanent body that cannot be dissolved;each Member of the Legislative Council (MLC) serves for a six-year term, with terms staggered so that the terms of one-third of a Council’s members expire every two years. This arrangement parallels that forthe Rajya Sabha, the upper house of the Parliament of India.As of 2014, seven (out of twenty-nine) states have a Leg Read More

Important Office Holders in India

Constitutional offices Office Name Since President of India Pranab Mukherjee 25 July 2012 Vice President of India / Chairman of the Rajya Sabha Mohammad Hamid Ansari 11 August 2007 Chief Justice of India T.S. Thakur 3 December 2015 Political offices Office Read More

Election Commission of India

Election Commission of India : 1) Article 324 provides for a single Election Commission for the Country 2) The Election Commission of India is an autonomous, constitutionally established federal authority responsible for administering all the electoral processes in the Republic of India 3) The Election Commission has the power of superintendence, direction and control of all elections to the parliament of India and the state legisl Read More

Polity Articles- Trick to Remember


Parliamentary Terms

SOME IMPORTANT PARLIAMENTARY TERMS QUORUM It is the minimum number of members required to transact the business of the House. Article 100 of the constitution specifies that the Quorum of either House shall be 10% of the strength of the House     Question Hour The first hour of every sitting of parliament is called the Question Hour. Question Read More

Fundamental Rights

FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS : Right to Equality Article 14  --- Equality before law and equal protection of law Article 15  ----  Prohibition of discrimination on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth Article 16  ----- Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment Article 17 -----  End of Untouchability Article 18 ----- Abolition of titles. Military and academic distincti Read More

Schedules Of The Constitution

Schedules Of The Indian Constitution FIrst Schedule The States The Union Territories     Second Schedule Part A : Provision as to the President and th Governors of States Part B : (Repealed) Part C : Provisions as to the speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the House of the people and the Chairman Read More


SPECIAL STATUS OF JAMMU & KASHMIR The special status of Jammu and Kashmir is guaranteed in Article 370 of the Constitution This status has been provided on the basis of an agreement concluded at the time of Jammu & Kashmir's accession to India Jammu and Kashmir has its own Constitution, apart from the Indian Constitution. Its Constitution was framed by a Consitutional Assembly of its own and came into being on the 26th Read More


FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS : These Fundamental Rights Finalised by a committee of the Constituent Assembly headed by Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel Are Protected by the constitutional remedy by way of an application directed to Supreme Court under Article 32 and High Court under Article 226 They can be altered only through constitutional amendment Vital for the full development of the human personality, promoting an individual dignity and we Read More

Evolution of the Constitution of India

EVOLUTION OF THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA : A constitution is a document of people's faith and aspirations possessing a special legal sanctity It is the Fundamental law of the country and all other laws and customs of the country in order to be valid must conform to it A constitution sets out framework and the Principle function of various organs of the Government as well as relations between the Government and its citizens &n Read More


FUNDAMENTAL DUTIES : The Fundamental Duties are contained in Article 51A of Part IV-A of the constitution The Fundamental Duties were inserted into the constitution of India by the 42nd Amendment Act , 1976 These duties were added on the recommendation of Swaran Singh committee The Basis for Fundamental Duties is the Japanese Model These duties are incorporated with the purpose of making the citizens patriotic and promoting Read More

Center State Relations

CENTER STATE RELATIONS : The Legislative authority is divided into three lists.  Union List, State List, Concurrent List The Union List contains 97 subject, State list 61 and Concurrent list 47 Subjects Both the Parliament and the State legislature can make lows on subjects given in the concurrent list   SUBJECTS COVERED UNDER UNION LIST : Foreign Affair Defence Armed Forces Communication Read More


METHODS OF AMENDMENTS IN CONSTITUTION : THREE METHODS  1) Method of Simple Majority : Applies to matters related to Citizenship, abolishing or creating second chambers in the states, provisions relating to Scheduled to Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes etc 2) In this, the following conditions should be fulfilled : Both the houses must pass the proposal by a majority of the total membership. By a 2/3 major Read More


POLITICAL PARTIES : To be recognised as a National party , a party needs to secure atleast 6 % of the valid votes polled in any four or more states in a general election to the Lok Sabha or State Assembly. In Addition to it, it has to win atleast 4 seats in the Lok Sabha from any State or state as well As an Alternative, a party can also secure the status of a national party if it secures at least 2 % seats in the Lok Sabha subject to Read More

Schedules of the Constitution

Schedules of the Constitution :   SCHEDULE ARTICLE DEALS WITH       First Schedule (Articles 1 and 4) This lists the states and territories of India, lists any changes to their borders and the laws used to make thatchange.       Read More




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