Geography Topics 3

List of Mountains of the World

List of Mountains of the World   List of Major Mountain Peaks of the World:   List of the Mountain Peaks Location Heights (m) Everest Nepal 8,848 K2 (Godwin Austin) India 8,611 Kanchanjunga I Read More

List of Various Dams of India / Important Hydroelectric Dams in India

List of Various Dams of India / Important Hydroelectric Dams in India   Dams River State Almatti Dam - Krishna Karnataka Baglihar Dam - Chenab Jammu & Kashmir Bhakra Nangal Dam - Sutlej Read More

Important Foreign Towns and Cities situated on River Bank

Important Foreign Towns and Cities situated on River Bank:     Town River Adelaide (Australia) Torrens Amsterdam (The Netherlands) Amsel Alexandria (Egypt) Nile Ankara (Turkey) Kizil Read More

Main Passes of Himalayas/ Mountain Passes in India

Main Passes of Himalayas/ Mountain Passes in India: The Himalayan mountain system is the highest in the world and is home to the world's highest peaks. There are 14 Himalayan peaks with elevation over 8,000 metres. Important mountain passes/himalayan passses makes few routes through the mountains possible.   List of important Mountain Passes in India/Himalayan passes are given below:   1. Debsa Pass - Debsa Pa Read More

List of Waterfalls

List of Waterfalls in India:   List of Waterfalls in India Location Thoseghar Waterfalls 500 metres (1,600 ft) (Highest) Satara district, Maharashtra Barehipani falls Mayurbhanj, Orissa Langshiang falls Read More

List of Largest Deserts of the World

List of Largest Deserts of the World     Name of the Desert Details Sahara desert It is the world hottest and third largest desert after the Antarctic Desert and the Arctic Desert. It is 94,00,000 sq. km. in area and covers most of North Africa such as Algeria, Chad, Egypt, Eritrea, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Suda Read More

Types of Forest in India:

Types of Forest in India: India possesses a variety of forests and natural vegetation which varies from region to region due to variations in climatic conditions, soil types and relief features. The country can be divided into five major vegetation regions which are:  (i) the tropical evergreen and semi-evergreen forests, (ii) the tropical deciduous forests, (iii) the dry thorn forests, (iv) the tidal forests and Read More

National Emblems of Countries:

National Emblems of Countries:     Name of the Country Emblem Australia Kangaroo Bangladesh Water Lily Barbados Head of Trident Belgium Lion Ca Read More


Rocks Earth’s crust is composed of rocks. Its an aggregate of one or more minerals. Rocks do not have definite composition of mineral constituents. However, feldspar and quartz are the most common minerals found in rocks. Petrology is science of rocks. It is a branch of geology. A petrologist studies rocks in all aspects  – composition, texture, structure , origin, occurrence, alternation and relationship with other rocks. Read More

Solar Radiation

Solar Radiation The following notes about Solar radiation and Temperature inversion are based on standard reference books like the NCERTs for the benfit of aspirants. We hope you find these useful for a quick revision. Earth receives most of its energy in form of short wavelengths. Insolation is – incoming solar radiation. Earth is a geoid, resembling a sphere. Earth is farthest from the Sun – 4th July (Aphelion Read More

Motion of the Earth

Motion of the Earth The Earth shows two types of motions which leads to seasons and day-night patterns. These motion are – rotation around its own axis and revolution about the Sun. Rotation – The movement of the earth on its axis. The Earth rotates from the west towards the east. Around 500 BC, Aryabhatta  deduced by his calculations that the Earth is spherical and rotates about its axis. Revolution – The mo Read More

Interior of the Earth

Interior of the Earth It is given fact that the radius of earth is 6,370 km. Therefore, the interior of Earth can not be studied only by direct observations. But its properties are studied indirectly by deducing conclusions from the study of earthquake waves that propagate through the interior rocks and other such indirect means. Configuration of surface of earth is a product of exogenic and endogenic processes in earth. It is the endo Read More

Movement of Ocean Water

Movement of Ocean Water Since the ocean waters are dynamic, it shows two types of movements:horizontal and vertical. This movement of ocean water is influenced by a variety of factors like Its physical characteristics – temperature, density, salinity External forces – Sun, moon, and winds I. The two types of Horizontal motion of movements of ocean water –   Ocean Current: Move water from one place Read More

Physiography of India

Physiography of India India is the seventh largest country with 2.4% of total area of the world. Indian Sub-continent includes India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh and Bhutan, lying totally in northern hemisphere. The physiography of India is unique and is responsible for development of distinctive features in the sub-continent. The Indian Mainland extends from 8°4′ north and 37°6′ North in length(latitudes). And betw Read More

Natural Vegetation

Natural Vegetation   The plant community left undisturbed over a long time to adjust themselves to climate and soil conditions – natural vegetation.   Types of forest: Tropical evergreen and semi-evergreen Tropical deciduous forests Tropical thorn Forest Montane Forest Littoral and Swamp Forest Tropical Evergreen & Semi Evergreen Forest:   They are found in warm and humid Read More


LANDSLIDE IN INDIA : In India, the Himalayas are prone to landslides, particularly n monsoon season, from months of June to October. Various types of landslides occur in Himalayas, including block slumping, debris flow, debris slide, rock fall, rotational slip and slump.   What is a landslide? A landslide is the gravitational movement of a mass of rock, or mass of earth or debris, downwards on a slope. It generally occurs Read More

Crops in India

Crops in India  Agricultural seasons of India are three chief ones – Kharif, Rabi and Zaid.   Kharif Crop: These are the crops which are sown at the beginning of the south-west monsoon season (June to July) and are harvested at the end of the same season (September and October). Major crops grown in this season include rice, jowar, bajra, groundnut, jute, cotton, seasmum, some pulses like moong, urad, etc. & Read More

Climate of India

Climate of India  India has a monsoon kind of climate. The whole country has a tropical monsoonal climate since, the greater part of the country lies within tropics. And the climate is influenced by the south-west  and North-east monsoons. The position of the mountain ranges and direction of the rain bearing winds are the two main factors that determine the climate of India. Alternating season is the chief characteristic feat Read More

Types of Soils

Types of Soils  The committee appointed by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), classified the Indian soil in the following main groups: 1. Alluvial Soils 2. Black Soils 3. Red Soils 4. Laterite Soils 5. Mountain Soils 6. Desert Soils     1. Alluvial Soil: It is the most important type of soil found in India covering about 40 per cent of the total land area. It is very f Read More

Climatic Regions of India

Climatic Regions of India   Following are the climatic regions of India.   Tropical Rain Forest: This type of climate is found on the west coastal plain and Sahyadris and in parts of Assam.The temperatures are high, not falling below 18.2 degree c even during winter and rising to 29 degree C in April and May, the hottest months.Dense, forests and plantation agriculture with crops like tea, coffee and spices are th Read More

Types of Winds

Types of Winds The winds at the surface may be classified into four main types, viz. (1) the planetary winds, (2) the monsoon winds, (3) cyclones and anticyclones (4) local winds.   1. Planetary winds: The general distribution of winds throughout the lower atmosphere is known as planetary winds. Confined within some latitudinal belts, these winds blow rather regularly throughout the year and are basically controlled by the Read More


Earthquake Earthquakes are the sudden shakes that occur on Earth. They are caused by the moving of tectonic plates. When these tectonic plates slide past each other, they tend to squeeze and cause tension. This tension is an earthquake. Interesting Earthquake Facts: There are millions of earthquakes each year. Currently, there is no way to scientifically predict an earthquake. A seismograph is used to determine the intensit Read More

Types of Rocks

Types of Rocks   The three main types, or classes, of rock are sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous and the differences among them have to do with how they are formed. 1) Sedimentary Sedimentary rocks are formed from particles of sand, shells, pebbles, and other fragments of material. Together, all these particles are called sediment. Gradually, the sediment accumulates in layers and over a long period of time hardens int Read More

Agricultural Seasons in India

Agricultural Seasons in India: 1. The Kharif Season: Crops are sown at the be­ginning of south-west monsoon and harvested at the end of the south-west monsoon. Sowing Season: May to July. Harvesting Season : September to October. Important Crops: Jowar, Bajra, Rice, Maize, Cotton, Groundnut, Jute, Hemp, Tobacco etc.   2. The Rabi Season: Crops need cool climate during growth period but warm climate duri Read More


GEOGRAPHY TOPIC (MOUNTAINS) MOUNTAINS : An uplifted portion of the Earth's surface is called a mountain On the basis of their origin or mode of formation, the mountains are classified as structural, residual or dissected and volcanic STRUCTURAL MOUNTAINS  Such systems are hundred of kilometers wide and thousands of kilometer long Many of them lie near or parallel to continental coaslines Bot Read More

Atmosphere and It’s Layer

Atmosphere and It’s Layer   An atmosphere is a layer of gases surrounding a planet or other material body of sufficient mass that is held in place by the gravity of the body. Let us know about Atmosphere in detail as the topic is very important for upcoming Competitive Exams.   Atmosphere  • The envelope of air that completely surrounds the earth is known as atmosphere. • The atmosphere ex Read More

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