History Topics -3

Important Treaties in the History of India

Important Treaties in the History of India                     Treaty of Purandar (1665) The Treaty of Purandar was signed in 1665 between the Rajput ruler Jai Singh I, who was commander of the Mughal Empire, and Maratha Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj. Shivaji was forced to sign the agreem Read More

Europeans in India

Europeans in India The Europeans and Indians commercial contact has a long history. But it was in the end of fifteenth century, that India began to be seen as an attractive destination by the Europeans. Initially these trading Europeans only had commercial interests but by passage of time they indulged in the political affairs. Finally they established colonies here, which also led to rivalry among European powers, initially for commercial Read More

Ancient Indian Scientists

Ancient Indian Scientists The contributions made by ancient Indians in the field of Mathematics and Science, including Medical Science, Ayurveda, Yoga,Astronomy, Astrology, etc. are immense and as proud Indians we must have knowledge of them. Questions related to this topic are seen in every exam. Therefore for the benefit of all aspirants of competitive exams, we are bringing out details of the noted scientists of ancient India.   Read More

Land Revenue System of British in India

Land Revenue System of British in India Till 18th century, Indian agriculture and cottage industries had a very strong relation. India held prominent place in field of agriculture and handicraft production in the world. The coming of British colonial rulers destroyed handicraft industry while causing far-reaching changes in country’s agrarian structure by introducing novel systems of land tenure and policies of revenue administration Read More

Peasant Movements in India

Peasant Movements in India    The Indigo Revolt (1859-60): It was directed against European planters who exploited the local peasants by forcing them to take advances and sign fraudulent contracts according to which the peasants were compelled to grow Indigo, rather than the more profitable rice. The revolt began in Govindpur village in Nadia district, Bengal and was led by Digambar Biswas and Bishnu Biswas who organi Read More

Anglo Sikh Wars

Anglo Sikh Wars   The Conquest of Mysore: British expansion of Power in Mysore Haider Ali started his career as a soldier in the Mysore state, where he later became the Faujdar of Dindigul. With the help of the French he was able to establish a modern arsenal in Dindigul. He gained military experience at Trichinopoly during the Anglo- French war. Haidar Ali was uneducated and illiterate, but he possessed a keen int Read More

Anglo Maratha Wars

Anglo Maratha Wars (Anglo Maratha Wars – Ncert History Notes And Study material) Balaji Baji Rao was the third Peshwa who died after the defeat of Marathas in Third Battle of Panipat in 1761. He was succeeded by Madhav rao, his son. While Raghunath Rao, brother of Balaji Baji Rao was in lookout to become Peshwa himself. After death of Madhav Rao in 1772, British caused the first war with Marathas.   First Anglo-Maratha W Read More


LIST OF MAJOR SLOGANS OF INDIA Slogan (Phrase) Was given by Inklab Jinda Bad Bhagat Singh Dilli Chalo Shubhash Chandra Bose Karo Ya Maro Mahatma Gandhi Jai Hind Shubhash Chandra Bose Purn Swraj Jawaharlal Nehru Hindi, Hundu Hindustan Bhartendu Read More


LIST OF SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS Movements Leader Year Brahm Samaj Raja Ram Mohan Roy 1828 Young Bengal Movement Henry Vivian Derojio 1828 Prarthna Society Atma Ram panduranga 1867 Arya Samaj Dayananda Saraswati 1875 Theosophical So Read More

Vedic Doctrine of Hinduism

  Vedic Doctrine of Hinduism By the end of the Later Vedic Age, six prominent schools of Hindu Philosophy had been established. They are as follows:  Darshans Authors Year of Beginning Original Book Theme Nyaya Gautama 6th BC Nyaya Sutra It is a logical quest for God. It tells that the material power Maya Read More

Vedic Literature

Vedic Literature   FOUR VEDAS 1) Samveda Rhthmic compilation of hymns for Rigveda "Book for Chants" contains 1,549 hymns, meant to be sung at the 'soma' sacrifice by a special class of Brahmanas called Udgatris. But the Samaveda has very little original value. Has only 75 fundamental hymns Karnataka - Jaiminga Gujarat - Kanthun Maharashtra - Ranayaniya Sung by Udgatri   Read More

Religion in Later Vedic Period

Religion in Later Vedic Period The two outstanding Rig Vedic gods, Indra and Agni, lost their former importance. On the other hand Prajapati, the creator, came to occupy the supreme position in later Vedic pantheon. Rudra, the god of animals, became important in later Vedic times and Vishnu came to be conceived as the preserver and protector of the people. In addition, some symbolic objects began to be worshipped, and we notice signs of id Read More

Later Vedic Society

Later Vedic Society Social Organisation: The later Vedic society came to be divided into four varnas called the Brahmanas, rajanyas or kshatriyas, vaisyas and shudras, each varna was assigned with its duty. Brahmanas conducted rituals and sacrifices for their clients and for themselves, and also officiated at the festivals associated with agricultural operations. They prayed for the success of their patron in war, and in return the king pl Read More

Later Vedic Polity and Economy

Later Vedic Polity and Economy Political Organisation: In later Vedic times, the vidatha completely disappeared. The sabha and samiti continued to hold the ground, but their character changed. Women were no longer permitted to sit in the sabha, and it was now dominated by nobles and Brahmanas. The formation of wider kingdoms made the king more powerful. Tribal authority tended to become territorial. The term rashtra, which indicates territ Read More

Socio Economic Life in Rig Vedic Period

Socio Economic Life in Rig Vedic Period Tribal Organizatoin: Kinship was the basis of social structure. People gave their primary loyalty to the tribe, which was called jana. Another important term which stands for the tribe in the Rig Veda is vis. Probably the vis was divided into grama or smaller tribal units meant for fighting. When the gramas clashed with one another, it caused samgrama or war. The term for family (kula) is mentioned r Read More

Rig Vedic Polity

Rig Vedic Polity The administrative machinery of the Aryans in the Rig Vedic period worked with the tribal chief in the centre. He was called rajan. Although his post was hereditary, we have also some traces of election by the tribal assembly called the samiti. The king was called the protector of his tribe. He protected its cattle, fought its wars and offered prayers to gods on its behalf. Several tribal assemblies, such as sabha, sam Read More

Aryans arrival in India

Aryans arrival in India The Aryans came to India in several waves. The earliest wave is represented by the Rig Vedic people who appeared in the subcontinent in about 1500 BC. They came into conflict with the indigenous inhabitants called the Dravidians mentioned as dasa or dasyus in Rig Veda. The Rig Veda mentions the defeat of Sambara by Divodasa, who belonged to the Bharata clan. Possibly the dasyus in the Rig Veda represent the original Read More

Origin of Aryans

Origin of Aryans Some scholars, such as Max Muller and Dr. Thapar, believe that originally, the Aryans seem to have lived somewhere in the area east of Alps, in the region known as Eurasia, the region of the Caspian Sea and the southern Russian steppes,and gradually dividing into a number of tribes migrated in search of pasture, to Greece and Asia Minor, to Iran and to India. By that time, they came to be known as Aryans. This is proved by Read More

Early Vedic Age

Early Vedic Age: The Vedic age began in India in about 1500 BC and extend upto 6000 BCE with the coming of the Aryans, who scattered on the plains of northern India. Max Muller believes it an anomaly to regard the race as Aryan because scientifically Aryan connotes nothing but language. The relationship between the race and language of these people with the classical languages of Europe was established by a Bavarian Franz Bopp in 1816. Read More

Iron Age

Iron Age In Southern India, use of iron came after the use of stone. In any case, there were periods of overlappongs in the use of stone, copper, bronze and iron. Our only evidence of the transition from copper-bronze age to the iron age is the monuments like dolmens, cairns, cremolechs. These have been found in wide areas all over India such as Assam, Bihar, Orrisa, Central India, Gujrat and Kashmir. But by far the largest number has been Read More

Chalcolithic Age

Chalcolithic Age Towards the end of the Neolithic period began the use of metals. Firt metal to be used was copper and the culture of that time is called Chalcolithic cultre. The earliest settlements belonging to this phase are extended from the Chhotanagpur plateau to the copper Gangetic basin. Some sites are found at Brahmagiri near Mysore and Navada Toli on the Narmada. The transition from use of stone to the use of metals is slow a Read More

Neolithic Age

Neolithic Age The word 'neolithic' was first coined by Sir John Lubbock in 1865. Miles Burkit enumerated four characteristics of neolithic culture Animal domestication Agricultural practice Grined and Polished stone tools and Pottery manufacture The discovery of the tools and implements of the neolithic age was made by Le Mesurier in Uttar Pradesh in 1860. Later on, Frasher discovered such objects in Bellary in Read More

Mesolithic Age

Mesolithic Age It was the transitional between Palaeolithic and Neolithic ages. Its characcteristic tools are microliths all made of stone. The microliths were first discovered by Carlyle in 1867 from Vindhyan Rock Shelters. This age is also known by various names like Late Stone Age or Microlithic Age. The Mesolithic people lived on hunting, fishing and food-gathering. Earliest domestication of animals has alo been witnessed from Madhya P Read More

Palaeolithic Age

Palaeolithic Age It was basically a hunting and food gathering culture 'Palaeo' means 'old' and 'lithic' means 'stone'. Palaeolithic age in India is divided into three phases:  Early or Lower Palaeothic (50,000 - 100,000 BC) : It covers the greater part of the Ice Age and its characteristic feature is the use of hand-axe, cleaners and choppen Middle Palaeothic (100,000 - 40,000 BC): The Middle P Read More

Harappa Civilization in India

Harappa Civilization in India Excavations at the site have led to following specific findings Two rows of six granaries with brick platforms; 12 granaries together had the same area as the Great Granary at Mohenjodaro; Evidences of coffin burial and cemetry 'H' culture (two antelopes and the hunter on a postherd from a cemetry have been discovered). Single-room barrack. Evidence of direct trade interaction with Meso Read More

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